images-duckduckgo-comMacroeconomic controversies usually center on causation. Two questions of significance for policymaking concern output and growth:

  • Is output demand or supply determined?
  • Is economic growth demand or supply led?

If demand is the driver of output and growth, there will be considerable scope for government spending to influence the economy’s trajectory. If, instead, supply-side factors are determining, fiscal policy will be impotent other than possibly temporarily. Recent history suggests – much like the earlier history of the Great Depression and Second World War – that fiscal policy is important to the performance of the economy, and that demand matters. In my view, the causal significance of demand follows quite strikingly from Modern Monetary Theory’s institutional analysis of sovereign currencies together with the fully compatible Post Keynesian analysis of banking and endogenous money. Before getting into that, a brief summary of opposing positions on output and growth determination is perhaps warranted…
Read rest here: Institutions, Monetary Operations and a Demand-Led Global Economy

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